Social Media and Ethics – A Therapist’s Online Presence

In my recent blog on Googling therapists, I touched on the subject of the therapist’s responsibility to manage their own online activity. In this blog post I would like to expand on that and highlight some ways in which therapists can ensure their online activity does not negatively impact on clients.

I was heartened and inspired by Cathy Knibbs’s recent blog post raising the issue of therapists posting about clients online. It is something I have witnessed on a number of occasions, mostly in Facebook groups and on Twitter. As Cathy Knibbs points out, even that which seems anonymous can be narrowed down, and can even become identifiable information, especially when combined with the poster’s Facebook page details, in the many instances that the therapist’s workplace is listed on their profile. Supervision exists to ethically discuss client work, and posting about it on social media, for whatever reason is very difficult to justify in my opinion.

I think a large part of the problem is that therapists are not always as aware as they perhaps should be of how their online presence can impact on clients. As a relatively tame example, I was once searching for a supervisor, and as part of my process of narrowing down potential supervisors I looked to see if any of my shortlist had social media profiles. One supervisor did, and had written in a public post about how glad they were that it was the weekend because being at work was such a bore! I thought about how their therapeutic clients in particular might have felt if they had read this. I imagine it could be quite hurtful and potentially damaging to the therapeutic alliance. In addition, due to the feelings of shame which can emerge for clients around searching online for their therapists, this hurt may never be brought into the room and never be addressed in the relationship. All of this potential risk of harm to client relationships could have been avoided if the therapist had simply altered their Facebook privacy settings more appropriately, and/or anonymised their personal Facebook account. (This supervisor was promptly crossed off my shortlist).

I feel that any therapist using social media needs to feel confident that they are able to manage their content ethically and safely. If not, there are many resources to help. From online tutorials to help with managing Facebook privacy, to ethical blogging workshops and social media coaching, help is out there and we are each responsible for any gaps in our understanding.

I was recently at an event where online conduct and ethics were debated. It seems to me that dilemmas such as “What do I do if a client sends a friend request?” are easily resolved by the presence of a social media policy, which can be made available to the client at the contracting stage outlining what the therapist’s boundaries are around online activity. Hazel Hill has an excellent example of this on her website. Like any boundary consideration, clarity, consistency and dialogue are crucial for avoiding harm. Think ahead and remove the need for reactionary social media policy, which could be received as shaming by any client involved in its creation.

As I have written before, I am aware that by engaging with social media, I am allowing my clients access to thoughts, opinions and areas of my experience which would not be presented in the therapy room. I am self-disclosing with every tweet and blog post. I am mindful of how my words could be received by clients, and I have brought this part of my professional activity to my supervision in order to ensure I am properly reflecting on it.

To me, social media is a valuable platform, both on a personal and a professional level. I love to blog, and to read blogs; I find engagement with other therapists enriching and I feel the knowledge I gain from other bloggers and social media users (including therapists, other professionals and therapy-users too) contributes to my awareness in counselling practice and also in research and professional issues.

The ethics of social media use is a subject gaining traction, I think, and I am hopeful that our awareness will continue to grow. The latest BACP ethical framework requires that “reasonable care is taken to separate and maintain a distinction between our personal and professional presence on social media where this could result in harmful dual relationships with clients”. I feel a significant expansion on this area of ethical conduct would be beneficial for its members and their clients going forward.

The more I explore harm in therapy, the more optimistic I become

People have asked me whether engaging with the topic of harm in therapy has led me to feel jaded or cynical about the the profession I am entering. I have reflected on this question a lot, and I have concluded that the answer is an unequivocal “no”. On the contrary, I feel that engagement with this topic makes the profession more robust, and the positive response I have received from therapists since I have started this blog assures me that the profession as a whole cares deeply about ethical practice and client responses to therapy. I am also encouraged by, and in admiration of, those therapists already speaking out about harm in therapy, such as Philip Cox and Amanda Williamson.


I was motivated to begin blogging about harm primarily because I just couldn’t hear the voices of those who have had negative experiences in therapy, even though statistics tell us that they are out there in large numbers. There’s something terribly disempowering about having a harmful experience and then not being heard.

Over the years I have engaged with online communities where people have supported each other through harmful experiences in therapy and I have also been involved with online forums for therapists. I wondered, where do I exist in all of this? Where is the bridge that connects these experiences and viewpoints? I feel like I belong at the place where those worlds meet, and honestly, I feel like we all belong in that place – we are all learners and teachers.

Somebody recently asked me who this blog is intended for. When I write, I am aware that I will be read by a mixture of therapists, clients, trainees and other people with an interest in the subjects I discuss. It is important to me that we are all able to engage in dialogue together. I am always learning from the comments on this blog from clients and therapists, and also from my engagement on twitter, which I initially saw as a means to promote my blog, but which has actually become a real platform for learning and exploration for me.

It is my feeling (and my personal experience of therapy supports this) that harm in therapy can, in some cases, be mitigated by a positive re-engagement with therapy. Quite likely, this is not always true, and it is important, in my view, to trust a client’s own self-determination when deciding their best way forward after a harmful experience.

It seems crucial, when a client presents with a story of an unethical or careless therapist, or an otherwise harmful situation, that the new therapist is able to be with them on that journey, just like with any other presenting issue or traumatic experience. It is important to be aware of our own personal investment in the profession, how it challenges our objectivity and how this might impact on our empathy. Awareness, as always, is key, and in creating a healthy collective consciousness of  harm in therapy, I feel as though the profession is moving in the right direction.

I Googled my therapist. Is that okay?

In short, yes it is okay.

There are a number of reasons why you may Google a therapist – it may be as part of a screening process as you are selecting a therapist, it may be out of curiosity about your counsellor, or it might be part of a desire for connection between sessions, especially where attachment is a consideration. All of these feelings are okay, and a therapist should not shame or blame you for searching for them on the internet.

Googling a therapist can raise feelings of guilt for some clients, and I think that it is useful in therapy to discuss the relationship as openly as you feel able. I would suggest that having a conversation with your therapist around your internet search could be a great opportunity for good work in therapy. While it is fine to look your therapist up online, sometimes doing so can cause discomfort or even distress and if you find you are experiencing negative effects, I think it is especially important to discuss that with your therapist, and to consider whether the it is unhelpful to your process.

As a therapist I am mindful about my internet presence, and work reflexively to ensure the content I produce online both keeps me feeling safe, and is unlikely to negatively impact my relationships with clients. Were a client to read any of my publications or public social media content, I would encourage discussion around that in the therapy room; I don’t wish for my online activity to become an obstacle to therapy for any client, therefore when it emerges in the relationship it feels really important that a client can be honest with me about the impact my activity has. That which presents itself in the relationship is inevitably part of the work.

I believe that the responsibility for managing online presence lies squarely with the therapist. Training exists to help therapists to ethically manage their social media activity and I strongly urge any therapist who is unsure about managing the public or private side of their social media content to take up these training opportunities.

These are relatively new ethical considerations, but in my view, absolutely vital ones for all therapists who engage with social media.

So why do I use social media? Well, essentially I wanted to blog. I felt like I wanted to be part of a conversation, and particularly to raise the profile of the topic of harm in therapy. I felt (and still feel) that in order to support the integrity of the profession, this discussion needs to be more present in our awareness than it feels at the moment. If I can be a part of that, then great. To do that I have to feel secure that I am not putting my clients at risk of harm, and for this reason I continue to engage with online training content, read and listen to the experiences of other therapists who blog and engage with the online community in what is hopefully a mutually supportive way.

I have thought carefully about what I do and do not disclose publically, and while I believe therapists have the right and responsibility to make their own best decisions about this, for me, I prefer not to disclose many details of my journey or my therapeutic process. This is both to ensure that I retain a sense of safety online, and also out of consideration of the potential impact of such disclosures on clients.

Lastly, another ethical question comes to mind: Is it okay for therapists to Google their clients? I will answer with my own personal view of this, which is an offer and not an undebatable truth. I have never, and will not Google my clients. This is my personal and professional boundary. The reason for this is that I am interested in the client who presents themselves in the therapy room. If there are parts of my client’s life that they do not wish to share with me, I feel it is important to respect their choice and their autonomy.

The Beauty of the Beast

I find snow completely paradoxical.

It is deliciously soft, yet it hurts my hands. Each flake is unique, yet together they create a blank canvas. It is so very solid, yet so readily it melts away. It brings us into the street to play together, yet it cuts us off from one another. It is beautiful yet I dismay when I see it.

This week I have an appointment with my rurally-situated therapist which looks unlikely to go ahead. As I reflect on the interruption to the continuity of the work, I think about the fragility of our routines, how easily they may be disrupted, and the resilience required to adapt creatively to unpredictable external events.

There is likely to be a great many therapy sessions, supervision sessions, coaching sessions, and so on, cancelled throughout the UK this week. Each has meaning; each represents the loss of an encounter for both parties, and perhaps the gain of something too. For the clients, supervisees, therapists, supervisors and coaches whose week is altered by the snow, there is an opportunity for reflection – we can contemplate what each encounter means for us, what meaning each relationship holds. I will reflect on the different feelings which emerge with different types of cancellations. I made it to my supervision this week – how would it have felt to have been disconnected from that? How did it feel to go?

We also have an opportunity to connect with nature differently – to get outside in the crisp, cold air and experience and connect with our altered environment.

As barriers to relating go, the ‘Beast from the East’ feels like a pretty relentless one right now, but just as it came, it will pass. And as we resume our connections which have been put on hold, we may make new discoveries about how we manage changes to our routine, and how it feels to reconnect after an unplanned disruption.

For now, I think a warm drink and some time to appreciate the gentle beauty of a snowy day are in order. I can already see the crocuses peeking their heads above the snow.

Rupture and Repair in Therapy

I chose the image above because I like the idea that a gap in something can be a window to something else. I think this can be true with therapeutic ruptures – a gap in understanding can illuminate areas which had been outside of awareness both for the therapist and the client, as well as in the relational dynamic.

When I think of ruptures in the therapeutic relationship, I am thinking of any point during the therapeutic process when the client and therapist encounter difficulties in their working alliance, whether it by through a miscommunication, therapist error, an incongruence between client expectations and therapist boundaries, or whatever else.

Such occurrence in therapy can be a source of great anxiety for client and therapist alike. Sometimes a rupture will be unresolved, and the client will choose to leave the relationship, sometimes there will be an unsuccessful attempt to repair the relationship, and very often ruptures can be worked through and resolved successfully.

I know from experience that repairing a rupture in the therapeutic alliance can actually have a strengthening effect on the relationship, and I think this is probably particularly true where the client’s previous experience of conflict has been scary, dangerous or unresolvable. When approached with acceptance and care, there can often be potential for growth and healing.

If we accept as an inevitability that ruptures may occur in the therapeutic relationship, we need to think carefully about what comes next. Obviously a lot will depend on the nature of the rupture, but I think some broad notions are worth keeping in awareness:

  • The client’s feelings are valid – No matter whether the therapist agrees with the client’s perspective about what has happened, it’s really important not to lose sight that the client is still entitled to it. I know it sounds obvious, but it is possible to become focused on our own frame of reference when our work is challenged. It’s a human response and we are all vulnerable to becoming defensive when we feel attacked. A defensive response towards the client is unlikely to have a therapeutic outcome.
  • It is a part of the work – From my relational perspective of psychotherapy, ruptures are a part of the work. As a client, they have taught me new ways to be ‘in relationship’ and the confidence I have gained in expressing my needs is helpful for all my relationships. Equally, the trust I have gained in my therapist allows for greater relational depth in the work. It’s a part of my process, and something would have been lost, I think, if my therapist and I had not worked together to resolve issues when they arose.
  • Boundaries are important – Issues around boundaries are sometimes a catalyst for ruptures in the therapeutic relationship, and they can also be instrumental in resolving them. It is important to have clear boundaries which create a sense of safety in the relationship, and being clear about where those boundaries lie may make boundary-related ruptures less likely. When ruptures do occur, therapeutic boundaries provide the frame and the space to resolve whatever issues are occurring. I would argue that while the alliance is fragile, altering therapeutic boundaries could cause additional strains or difficulties in the work.

Sometimes ruptures do go unresolved, and I think it’s important to retain perspective when this happens. It goes without saying that the therapist has an ethical responsibility to examine what has happened, and whether anything might have been done differently, – supervision provides a space for this important work. There will be occasions when ruptures arise due to the nature of the work (such as in the emergence of transference) and the client will leave before there has been any opportunity to work with the emerging material. It is so important in those instances, in my view, for the therapist to treat themselves kindly, and also to value client autonomy and trust them as the holders of their own process.

To me, ruptures are not about ascribing blame, but they are about taking responsibility – the willingness and ability to work non-defensively and reflexively are hugely important. I believe that modelling this way of being as a practitioner gives the best possible opportunity for positive therapeutic outcomes.

Is that a Finish Line Ahead? Nope! It’s a Checkpoint

I am due to qualify this summer. I have one shortish assignment left to write and 19 counselling hours left to get in order to have fulfilled all the requirements of my course.

I’m hearing a lot about finish lines, and ‘finally theres’ but it doesn’t feel that way to me. Of course a few things will change overnight when I get that piece of paper – my BACP membership will become a full membership, I can apply for paid positions if I wish to, I can remove the word ‘trainee’ from this blog.

I think there is likely to be an emotional shift too. It’s difficult for me to predict how that will feel; I imagine there will be a sense of accomplishment as well as trepidation; university has provided me with a valuable support network and I will have to adjust to no longer having that weekly connection with friends, peers and tutors. I plan to top my PG Diploma up to a masters next year and I think a small part of my motivation for doing so relates to my attachment to the academic element of my learning as well as a desire to continue to touch base with the university.

But in a strange way, during my learning journey I have already become so accustomed to ongoing change that qualification does not seem like the huge shift that I thought it might. Almost every week my perceptions about myself and about psychotherapy have been influenced and shifted by some aspect of my learning, whether that be client work, personal therapy, supervision or university. I am constantly discovering, and I don’t anticipate that will ever stop. I feel that I am in this process for life.

So what I see ahead is a checkpoint. An important checkpoint certainly, but not a finish line – it is a continuation of a journey which I feel began when I first walked into a therapy room as a client.

As I reach graduation, I will take time to celebrate my achievements, and reflect on my learning and growth so far. I am proud of what I have achieved over the last few years and grateful for the friends and mentors I have met along the way.

And at the same time, I will also celebrate what is to come – the unknown future paths of this remarkable journey.

Erotic Transference in Therapy

It strikes me that I did not elaborate on erotic transference in my recent blog post about transference. It seems to me that sexual feelings towards a therapist are often some of the most uncomfortable and difficult feelings that can emerge within the relationship. Often such feelings come as a complete shock to a client, especially when the therapist is not the client’s ‘usual type’ or even preferred gender.

As I talk about erotic transference, I want to confess some ambivalence about the term. It seems to me that these feelings can extend beyond the erotic, to romantic feelings, infatuation or feeling in love with a therapist. Having said that, a more all-encompassing term does not immediately present itself (answers on a postcard) so for the purposes of this blog post, erotic transference will be assumed to include any feelings of a romantic nature, including feeling in love and any sexual feelings towards the therapist too.

The emergence of erotic transference within the therapeutic relationship

Disclosing erotic feelings to a therapist can be a terrifying proposition. How will the therapist respond? Will they change boundaries? Will they feel disgusted? These are common concerns I hear expressed about the prospect of discussing erotic transference with a therapist.

I think it is important that therapists consider how they might respond to such a disclosure. Do they feel able to be accepting of whatever feelings emerge? To hear details of sexual fantasies, or desire for a romantic relationship, from any client who might express them? And how confident is the therapist in ethically managing erotic countertransference in this scenario? Physical sensations or reciprocal feelings could be very unsettling for a therapist and it is important that the client’s exploration of the emerging material is not undermined by the therapist’s uncertainty in the work. Supervision is vital of course, and an understanding of the nature of transference is very important to working ethically with these feelings and retaining a sense of perspective in the work.

So how are the feelings worked through? Accepting the feelings just as they are is huge. Listening with an open curiosity and without judgement, and crucially, never pushing the client for details which they do not wish to disclose. It’s really important that, as therapists we are examining our motivations for interventions as we work, because a client may feel very vulnerable when discussing erotic transference, and the potential for harm is present.

It is my personal feeling that boundary changes as a result of a disclosure of erotic transference (in fact, disclosure of any feelings towards a therapist) can be received as punitive, and should be avoided. As an example, any sudden changes to boundaries such as out of session contact or therapeutic use of touch because of a disclosure of erotic transference may feel like rejection, and reinforce conditions of worth which would be counterproductive to the therapeutic process.

One foot in the past

Erotic transference, like all other feelings towards the therapist, is likely to be rooted in a mixture of here-and-now feelings and feelings which originate in past relationships. So there may be here-and-now attraction (or not), but if these feelings are characterised by an unusual intensity, I think that this provides a clue that some element of the feelings may be historical. This could be around past romantic relationships, or quite often related to relationships from childhood.

Clients sometimes describe experiencing a mixture of erotic and maternal transference or erotic and paternal transference towards their therapist. It is not surprising that in some cases the emergence of strong attachment feelings last felt in childhood might be associated with eroticism in the adult brain. After all, the passion with which we loved our parents and needed our parents’ love and touch as infants is not usually paralleled in adult life, other than in romantic relationships. I feel it is possible that erotic feelings can sometimes be a way of consciously making sense of powerful unconscious feelings which are stirred from infancy.

I could get carried away with theory at this point, so I am consciously reining myself in. There are lots of useful books offering varied perspectives on erotic transference and love in the therapy room, and I would encourage anybody who is interested to explore the literature.

Why work through it?

I am a firm believer that the therapeutic relationship is a vessel to growth and change. If we ignore the emergence of any feeling, including erotic transference, we are potentially missing opportunities for movement in the relationship and important clues about the client’s process.

It needs to be handled with care and understanding, and the therapist must be aware of the delicacy of the work and attuned to the client’s needs (an in-depth exploration of the past will not be appropriate for a client in crisis, for example). However, feelings around erotic transference are simply feelings, and I feel, should be accepted and valued in the therapeutic process the same as any other.

A Look at Transference and Countertransference

Transference and the Here-and-Now

I’ve often heard people talk about transference as distinct from “real” feelings. I do not like the implication that feelings which originate in transference are not real. They are very real; for many clients they are painfully real.

I prefer to make the distinction between transference and “here-and-now” feelings. That is to say, feelings which have their origins in past relationships and attachments, and feelings which are a response to the therapist in the here-and-now. This is not an easy distinction to make; often the lines will be blurred, some feelings will be a mixture of the two, often it will be impossible to determine the origin of a feeling due to the unknown depths of our unconscious. In fact, to a greater or lesser extent, some element of transference, or projective identification is likely to be present in our feelings in all of our relationships.

The Value of Transference

My understanding of the purpose of working with transference in the therapy room is that those powerful feelings can yield important clues about that which is firmly rooted in our unconscious – these could include challenging or painful feelings and experiences, often completely outside of our awareness, which are impacting on the way we relate to others. These unconscious processes may represent barriers to relating, or keep us in unhealthy relational patterns. In exploring them, and experimenting with ways of ‘being’ within the safety of the therapeutic relationship, we hope to bring some of those unconscious processes into awareness and better understand and manage how we relate to others.

The Presence of Countertransference

Countertransference is an interesting thing I think, because it is often used to describe any feeling that the therapist has towards a client. But just as the client has a mixture of here-and-now feelings and feelings with origins in the past towards a therapist, it seems logical to me that there is likely to be similar complexities in the therapist’s feelings towards the client.

Countertransference as an unconscious response to the client’s transference can be useful source of information when brought into awareness because it has the potential to uncover important clues about the client’s process. For example, a therapist who feels an unusually strong desire to direct or rescue a client may explore how the client might unconsciously invite such a response in their relationships. It is my feeling however that this should be approached tentatively and with curiosity rather than misplaced assuredness, because our unconscious can be a complicated realm to decipher, and it takes a great deal of personal reflection to uncover what material belongs to whom in a therapeutic encounter. Indeed, often it is an unsolvable riddle.

So to me the therapist’s feelings towards a client are likely to be more than countertransference – they are likely to be more than an unconscious response to the client’s material. Relational practice means relationship, and relationships are inevitably filled with complex feelings from both parties.

I feel that for those feelings to be useful to the therapy, and to give them the best chance of remaining non-problematic, the therapist needs to model a curiosity and openness to discovering what the feelings are telling us in the context of the relationship, and exploring how that might be useful to the work.

When Transference Hurts

Feelings which emerge in the therapeutic relationship often touch on painful and traumatic past experiences and insecure attachments. The mind and body are often holding a great deal of pain as a result, and in many cases it is inevitable that elements of the transference will be experienced as painful by the client.

In the book Shouldn’t I be Feeling Better by Now?, Yvonne Bates questions whether the means justify the end when working with transference. I think there is a strong case for the idea that working with transference is simply not right for some clients, though I don’t believe there is a simple solution to ensuring that clients are not harmed by the emergence of these difficult feelings in therapy.

Transference and attachment to a therapist may present difficulties such as pain around the time and boundary-limited nature of the relationship, anguish over the sense that the relationship is not “real”, anger that the needs met in the therapeutic relationship were not met in childhood, and many more.

When working with a skilled therapist who understands the nature of transference, these feelings are very likely to shift in time; this work takes a great deal of patience and care from both parties but I believe that it can be of great benefit.

It is possible for a therapist to inadvertently reenact past relational trauma through a lack of awareness of the presence of countertransference, or to take transference feelings too personally (negative transference such as anger, for example) and act defensively or in a way that is received as rejection. I think all therapists can be vulnerable to this, and the key here is an ongoing process of self-reflection and supervision.

As I alluded to earlier, I think transference is ubiquitous in all of our relationships to some degree. Often these feelings will not demand to be addressed in therapy, but when it is clear that transference is directly relevant to the work, I feel that it is of paramount importance that the feelings are explored collaboratively and with an open dialogue about what meaning they hold for the client. It is my belief that the client’s autonomy and understanding of the process are essential components of positive outcomes for clients.

A Therapist in Therapy

I think I am in a fairly unusual position (at least judging by the small sample of my own personal acquaintances) of having a relationship with my own therapist which predates the beginning of my training, so I suppose my experiences of being a therapist in therapy are likely to be atypical.


There was no concern, for example, about needing to ‘get my counselling hours in’, no urgency to stick with a therapist and just get the thing done. I feel very lucky to have had an established relationship and to have avoided the frustrating and sometimes futile search for a good relational match in such a limited time.

As I read through the BACP professional conduct hearings, I have often been struck by the high number of cases brought by trainees or qualified therapists. I suspect that prior knowledge of ethical considerations and what constitutes good practice may account for some of this, and it links with the Macaskill and Macaskill statistic that 27% of therapists in training report experiencing harm in therapy, which was highlighted in Philip Cox’s recent article.

Reflecting on my own therapy, I believe there has been some evolution in the way we work – as an example, my therapist recently offered me a reference for a research-related chapter he thought I might find interesting – however I am aware that I like to keep an ongoing conversation in all of my therapeutic work (as a client and a therapist) about therapeutic purpose, and clarity in boundaries which ensures my therapy can retain purpose and direction, and avoid meandering into supervision or collegial chat.

I have learnt a lot about therapeutic practice from my therapist, but much of this has been unconscious learning, and a byproduct of good therapy rather than a conscious effort on my part to take note of the way he practices. This feels organic, and not a primary purpose or outcome of the therapy.

I find myself curious about what it might feel like to counsel a therapist. My sense is that there could be a number of potential difficulties for therapist and client to navigate.

I have heard it said that counselling trainees can be frustrating when the client views the therapy as simply another hurdle in the race to qualification, rather than an opportunity to engage at depth. Impatience on both sides of this type of situation is likely to be a major barrier to psychological contact, and it seems really important to have an ongoing dialogue about therapeutic aims and how the relationship is working. I think it’s also important to avoid falling into a generalisation that any trainee that walks through the door will be motivated by the course requirements rather than a desire and willingness to engage with the process.

As with any client, I think it’s important to be aware of whatever might be lurking in our shadows when working with therapists or trainees. Unconscious competitiveness, sensitivity to one’s work being judged, desire to mentor, desire to identify, underlying resentments about specific training establishments, assumptions about trainees or desire for friendship could all interfere with the effectiveness of the therapy if left unacknowledged and unchecked.

Not only do therapists deserve effective therapy in their own right, but I would argue they need it to be effective therapists themselves. It is my feeling that any potential barriers to the work of therapy need to be brought into the daylight should they emerge in the relationship.

I would also encourage any trainee therapist who does not feel they are getting effective therapy, and has not been able to resolve the issues within the relationship, to find a new therapist. I don’t think there is a more valuable part of the training process than the opportunity to explore oneself at depth. It is not something you want to miss out on.

Awareness and The Counsellor’s Unconscious

We all know that a therapist should possess good self-awareness. But how do we know what good self-awareness looks like? After all, we do not know what we are not aware of. We do not know what lurks in our unconscious until it arises into consciousness. For this reason, I think that self-awareness can never be declared to be achieved. We become increasingly self-aware as we uncover more about ourselves and our experiences, however self-discovery is not something we stumble upon, or even work to one day achieve; it is a lifelong process.

Steve Page looks at elements of the counsellor’s unconscious which may impact on therapeutic work through the lens of the Jungian concept of shadow in his excellent book The Shadow and the Counsellor; one of my takeaways from reading the book is that our unconscious processes as individuals, and also as a profession inevitably influence our work (and indeed our lives) at all levels, and it is our responsibility to manage our own shadow material as it emerges, whilst also acknowledging our unconscious’s ubiquitous, albeit often silent presence.

Countertranference responses in particular might not always be immediately apparent to us. I think that by being non-defensively aware of their potential to emerge, we give ourselves the best opportunity for making the unconscious conscious, and for appropriate reflection.

If we acknowledge the potential of unconscious material to emerge without our awareness or conscious control, it follows that a client may spot unconscious material before the therapist. This is where our capacity for self-reflection is really important.

It may be tempting, for example, in response to a client saying something like “What you said really hurt; I think you are frustrated with me” to respond immediately with a consciously congruent response such as “No! I am not frustrated. You misunderstood my intention.”.

The trouble with an immediate and non-reflective response such as this, is that it runs the risk of invalidating the client’s experience of the therapist, and presumes an instant understanding of processes which might be outside of the therapist’s awareness. Perhaps the therapist really isn’t feeling frustrated at all, which is perfectly possible, but to jump directly into a rebuttal without first exploring possible unconscious feelings runs the risk of being seen to be defensive or incongruent. Much better to explore this feeling together and work out what is happening in the relationship through here-and-now discussion.

Not all unconscious material will have a negative impact on the relationship, and it is likely that many things emerge from unconscious responses which are never picked up upon by either counsellor or client. In moments where an unconscious action jars with the reality of the relationship or the role, we are more likely to become aware of its presence. I feel that any awareness we can glean of our unconscious is a positive thing, though it’s perfectly feasible that nothing will need to change as a result of bringing something into consciousness, so long as it is not negatively impacting on the work. The positive part of its movement into awareness, is that it may then be monitored and reflected upon moving forward.

Rollo May (1965) makes a distinction between “intention” (conscious motivation) and “intentionality” (unconscious motivation) which I believe is a useful frame through which to view every intervention made in the therapy room. I think it is important to look at what we are doing with clients and ask ourselves not only “What is my intention?” but also “What is my intentionality?”.

So rather than aiming for an unmeasurable level of self-awareness, I am focusing my energy on developing my capacity to self-reflect and be reflexive in my work and my life as a whole. My feeling is that this is the food and sunlight required to allow my awareness to continue to grow.

For me to achieve this, I think I need to continue to accept my unconscious, to welcome it as a part of me and continue to be curious about what it has to teach me. Working with a non-defensive openness to how others, especially clients view me, is a crucial part of that process – both for forming good working alliances with clients, and also nurturing and allowing movement in my own self-development.


May, R. (1965) Intentionality, The Heart of Human Will. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 5 (2).

Page, S. (1999) The Shadow and the Counsellor. New York: Routledge.